Adderall Side Effects
Adderall, as a rule, is well tolerated and effective in treating the symptoms of ADHD and narcolepsy. The most common side effects are rapid heartbeat, euphoria, or anxiety. Large doses of the drug probably worsen cognitive functions and cause rapid muscle destruction. Usually, the side effects of Adderall are divided into physical and psychological.
PHYSICAL SIDE EFFECTS
The physical side effects of Adderall may vary widely, depending on the patient’s age and individual characteristics.
- Cardiovascular side effects may include irregular heartbeats (usually an increase in the heart rate), hypertension (high blood pressure), or hypotension (low blood pressure) due to the vasovagal response and the Raynaud phenomenon (secondary).
- Sexual side effects in men may include erectile dysfunction, prolonged or frequent erection.
- Respiratory system. The occurrence of dangerous physical side effects when taking usual pharmaceutical doses is rare. Amphetamine, contained in Adderall, stimulates the middle respiratory centers, increasing the rate of respiration and leading to deepening breathing. When Adderall is taken in therapeutic doses by healthy individuals, amphetamine does not cause a noticeable increase in speed or depth of breathing. But in the presence of respiratory anomalies, amphetamine can stimulate respiration.
- Urinary system. Amphetamine also causes a reduction in the sphincter of the bladder, which can lead to difficulty urinating. On another side, this effect makes amphetamine useful in the treatment of enuresis and urinary incontinence.
- Gastrointestinal tract. Amphetamine can have unpredictable effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Amphetamine may reduce the mobility of the gastrointestinal tract if the intestinal activity is high, or increase mobility if the smooth muscles of the track are relaxed.
- Amphetamine also has a small analgesic effect and may contribute to an increase in the analgesic effect of opiates.
- Other possible side effects include abdominal pain, acne, blurred vision, bruxism, sweating, dry mouth, loss of appetite, nausea, decreased seizure threshold, tics, and weight loss.
Recent studies conducted by the USFDA show that there is no correlation between serious adverse cardiovascular effects (sudden death, myocardial infarction, stroke) and medical use of amphetamine or other stimulants of ADHD in children, young adults, and elderly people.
PSYCHOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS
- Most common psychological effects of Adderall in therapeutic doses include anxiety, alertness, increased concentration, feeling of fatigue, mood swings (ecstasy and euphoria followed by mild dysphoria), increased initiative, insomnia or wakefulness, increased self-confidence, and communication skills.
- Less common or rare psychological effects that depend on the individual and the current mental state include anxiety, change in libido, megalomania, irritability, repetitive or obsessive behavior, and anxiety.
- With severe abuse, amphetamine psychosis may occur. Very rarely, such a psychosis can also occur when taking therapeutic doses of Adderall for a long time. According to the USFDA, there is no systematic evidence that stimulants provoke aggressive behavior or hostility.
Drug addiction is a serious risk of non-medical use of the Adderall, but it unlikely occurs as a result of medical use in the prescribed amount. Tolerance is formed quickly when abusing Adderall.
If persons having long-term treatment with Adderall and other similar drugs with a suddenly discontinue the use of the drug, they may have a limited withdrawal syndrome, which occurs within 24 hours after their last dose.
Symptoms of withdrawal include anxiety, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, lack of motivation, insomnia, and drowsiness.